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1枚目

The white cells

The white blood cells (leucocytes) may be divided into two broad
groups -the phagocytes and the lymphocytes.
Granulocytes , which include three types of cell , neutrophils
(polymorphs) , eosinophils and basophils , together with monocytes
comprise the phagocytes. The lymphocytes , their precursor cells ,
and plasma cells make up the immunocyte population . Normally
only mature phagocytic cells and lymphocytes are found in the
peripheral blood.

NORMAL LEUCOCYTE APPEARANCE

NEUTROPHIL(POLYMORPH)

This cell 12-15 μm in diameter has a characteristic dense nucleus
consisting of between 2 and 5 lobes and a pale cytoplasm with
an irregular outline and containing many fine pink (azurophilic)
or violet-pink granules.

MONOCYTES

These are of variable appearance , usually larger than other
peripheral blood leucocytes (16-20 μm in diameter) and possess a large
central oval or indented nucleus with clumped chromatin.

EOSINOPHILS

These cells are similar to neutrophils except the cytoplasmic
granules are coarser and more deeply red staining (since they
contain a basic protein) and there are rarely more than three
nuclear lobes.
They enter inflammatory exudates and appear to have
a special role in allergic responses , in defence against parasites and
in removal of fibrin formed during inflammation.

BASOPHILS

These are only occasionally seen in normal peripheral blood. They
have many cytoplasmic granules which overlie the nucleus and
contain heparin and histamine. In the tissues they become mast cells.
They have IgE attachment sites and their degranulation is associated
with histamine release.

LYMPHOCYTES

Most lymphocytes present in the peripheral blood are small cells
(7-15 μm in diameter) with scanty cytoplasm and a central nucleus
with coarse chromatin.




2枚目


Aldehydes are compounds of the general formula RCHO ; ketones are
compounds of the general formula RR´CO. The groups R and R´ may
be aliphatic or aromatic. (In one aldehyde , HCHO , R is H.)

Both aldehydes and ketones contain the carbonyl group , C=O , and
are often referred to collectively as carbonyl compounds. It is
the carbonyl group that largely determines the chemistry of
aldehydes and ketones.
It is not surprising to find that aldehydes and ketones resemble
each other closely in most of their properties. However , there is
a hydrogen atom attached to the carbonyl group of aldehydes , and
there are two organic groups attached to the carbonyl ketones.
This difference in structure affects their properties in two ways
: (a) aldehydes are quite easily oxidized , whereas ketones are
oxidized only with difficulty ; (b) aldehydes are usually more
reactive than ketones toward nucleophilic addition , the characteristic
reaction of carbonyl compounds.


As for their functional groups , all common monosaccharides consist
of a chain of carbons , all but one of which are bonded to a hydroxyl
group (C-OH). The single exception is a carbon doubly bonded to an oxygen,
thereby forming a carbonyl group.
The two atoms (other than the oxygen) that are bonded directly to the
carbonyl carbon determine whether it is part of an aldehyde or a ketone.


The classification of monosaccharides can indicate , simultaneously ,
both their carbon chain lengths and the kinds of substituents on their
carbonyl groups. Glucose for example , with a six-carbon skeleton
topped off by an aldehydic group , is an aldohexose. Here the prefix
aldo- tells us that glucose contains the aldehyde carbonyl group
(aldehyde , because there's a hydrogen bonded to the carbonyl group's carbon),
the stem -hex- refers to the six carbons present , and the suffix -ose
places the compound in the carbohydrate family.


Any abnormal growth of cells is called a tumor , or neoplasm. If
the tumor is confined to a local area and does not spread , it is
called a benign (be-nine') tumor. If the tumor spreads to neighboring
tissues or to distant parts of the body , it is called a malignant
(mah-lig'-nant) tumor. The general term for any type of malignant tumor
is cancer. The process of tumor cell spread is called metastasis (ma-tas'-ta-sis).
Tumors are found in all kinds of tissue , but they occur most frequently
in those tissues that repair themselves most quickly ; these tissues are
epithelium and connective tissue , in that order.


Malignant tumors , unlike benign tumors , can cause death no matter where
they occur.
Malignant tumors generally are classified in two categories according to
the type of tissue in which they originate:

1 Carcinomas(kar-si-no'mahs). These cancers originate in epithelium and
are by far the most common type of cancer. Common sites of carcinoma are
the skin , mouth , lung , breast , stomach , colon , and uterus. Carcinomas
are usually spread by the lymphatic system.

2 Sarcomas(sar-ko'mahs). These are cancers of connective tissue of all kinds
and hence may be found anywhere in the body. Their cells are usually spread
by the blood stream , and they often form secondary growths in the lungs.




3枚目

Cancer is not a new disease. The fossilized remains of animals and ancient
human bones indicate that it has been around for thousands of years.
Only in this century has fundamental scientific research provided the
genetic , cellular , chemical , and technological means to detect , diagnose,
and treat cancers. Because of improvements in treatment , the frequency of
deaths from cancers of the uterus , colon and rectum , and stomach have
declined over the last two decades.
At current rates , over 1.5 million Americans will develop cancer annually.
Over 500,000 die each year ; that is one death per minute. In most cases ,
cancer is a disease of middle and later life. Many cancer deaths , especially
those resulting from sunlight , smoking , and alcohol consumption , can be
prevented through changes in personal behavior. Many more can be prevented
by means of early recognition and treatment.



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